ANGLO-SAXONS RUNES AND ANGLO-SAXONS RUNIC INSCRIPTIONS

Anglo-Saxon runes has its origins in the older Futhark, but enjoys further in Friesland in the current North-West Germany, where Saxons lived 400 years before they immigrants and occupied the British Isles. "Anglo-Saxon runes" is therefore often called the "Anglo-Frisan runes" in thr litteratue. The language of the Anglo-Saxon inscriptions be both Old Frisian and old-English. The oldest inscriptions can be heathen, but most inscriptions that are found, has Christian content, especially those from the British Isles.

Anglo-Saxon runic inscriptions are found along the coast from today Friesland in North-West Germany to the Netherlands and in England and Scotland.

Anglo-Saxon runes, has been in daily use from 400-500's to the 900's, when they gradually went out of brug in line with Viking conquest of England and Scotland, which shows through the many findings of Nordic inscriptions on British Isles from the 900s and later.

The Anglo-Saxon runes, is arguably an successor of the 24-runens older Futhark, when the Anglo-Saxon runic alphabet gradual was expanded with several runes, opposite to what happened in the Nordic countries at the same time. In Scandinavia developed the 24-runers older Futhark to a 16-runers Futhark, while the Anglo-Saxon Fuþorc gradually evolved to consist of 33 runes.

In the Nordic / Germanic runic alphabet is the first 5 runes fuþark, but the first 5 runes in the Anglo-Saxon runic alphabet is fuþorc . Therefore are the the Anglo-Saxon / Anglo-Frisian runic alphabeth primarily called a Fuþorc , after the first 5 runes in the runic alphabet.

The use of runes in England died out around just before the year 1000, and was among others banned by King Knut (1017-1036).



Frisian Runic inscriptions - Runic inscriptions from Friesland

ANGLSAKSISKE ANGLSAKSISKE
Gold Coin from Harlingen, Frisia. The runic inscription reads hama, ie a man's name.




ANGLSAKSISKEANGLSAKSISKE
Wooden swore from Arum, Frisia

The Inscription reads:
edæboda

I is a name that shall mean "return-messenger"

Literature:
¤ The Corpus Of Frisian Runic Inscriptions.
¤ Frisian Runic History.
¤ Runic inscriptions in or from the Netherlands.



The Anglo-Saxon Handwritten Manuscripts

After the Anglo-Saxon runes no longer were handed over in an unbroken tradition, it is from about 900s preserved several handwritten manuscripts, where they anglosakiske runes are described, including in Codex Vindobonensis 795, Salzburg Futhorc (28 runic Futhorc), Hickes' Thesaurus Anglo-Saxon runic poem (29 runes), Codex Cotton (33 runic Futhorc), Codex Sangallensis 878 (See below).


Salzburg Futhorc (28 Runic Futhorc):
ANGLSAKSISKE Salzburg Futhork




The Runic Poem In Hickes' Thesaurus:
ANGLSAKSISK RUNEDIKT


1. Feoh byþ frofur fira gehwylcum;
sceal ðeah manna gehwylc miclun hyt dælan
gif he wile for drihtne domes hleotan.

2. Ur byþ anmod ond oferhyrned,
felafrecne deor, feohteþ mid hornum
mære morstapa; þæt is modig wuht.

3. Ðorn byþ ðearle scearp; ðegna gehwylcum
anfeng ys yfyl, ungemetum reþe
manna gehwelcum, ðe him mid resteð.

4. Os byþ ordfruma ælere spræce,
wisdomes wraþu ond witena frofur
and eorla gehwam eadnys ond tohiht.

5. Rad byþ on recyde rinca gehwylcum
sefte ond swiþhwæt, ðamðe sitteþ on ufan
meare mægenheardum ofer milpaþas.

6. Cen byþ cwicera gehwam, cuþ on fyre
blac ond beorhtlic, byrneþ oftust
ðær hi æþelingas inne restaþ.

7. Gyfu gumena byþ gleng and herenys,
wraþu and wyrþscype and wræcna gehwam
ar and ætwist, ðe byþ oþra leas.

8. Wenne bruceþ, ðe can weana lyt
sares and sorge and him sylfa hæfþ
blæd and blysse and eac byrga geniht.

9. Hægl byþ hwitust corna; hwyrft hit of heofones lyfte,
wealcaþ hit windes scura; weorþeþ hit to wætere syððan.

10. Nyd byþ nearu on breostan; weorþeþ hi þeah oft niþa bearnum
to helpe and to hæle gehwæþre, gif hi his hlystaþ æror.

11. Is byþ ofereald, ungemetum slidor,
glisnaþ glæshluttur gimmum gelicust,
flor forste geworuht, fæger ansyne.

12. Ger byÞ gumena hiht, ðonne God læteþ,
halig heofones cyning, hrusan syllan
beorhte bleda beornum ond ðearfum.

13. Eoh byþ utan unsmeþe treow,
heard hrusan fæst, hyrde fyres,
wyrtrumun underwreþyd, wyn on eþle.

14. Peorð byþ symble plega and hlehter
wlancum [on middum], ðar wigan sittaþ
on beorsele bliþe ætsomne.

15. Eolh-secg eard hæfþ oftust on fenne
wexeð on wature, wundaþ grimme,
blode breneð beorna gehwylcne
ðe him ænigne onfeng gedeþ.

16. Sigel semannum symble biþ on hihte,
ðonne hi hine feriaþ ofer fisces beþ,
oþ hi brimhengest bringeþ to lande.

17. Tir biþ tacna sum, healdeð trywa wel
wiþ æþelingas; a biþ on færylde
ofer nihta genipu, næfre swiceþ.

18. Beorc byþ bleda leas, bereþ efne swa ðeah
tanas butan tudder, biþ on telgum wlitig,
heah on helme hrysted fægere,
geloden leafum, lyfte getenge.

19. Eh byþ for eorlum æþelinga wyn,
hors hofum wlanc, ðær him hæleþ ymb[e]
welege on wicgum wrixlaþ spræce
and biþ unstyllum æfre frofur.

20. Man byþ on myrgþe his magan leof:
sceal þeah anra gehwylc oðrum swican,
forðum drihten wyle dome sine
þæt earme flæsc eorþan betæcan.

21. Lagu byþ leodum langsum geþuht,
gif hi sculun neþan on nacan tealtum
and hi sæyþa swyþe bregaþ
and se brimhengest bridles ne gym[eð].

22. Ing wæs ærest mid East-Denum
gesewen secgun, oþ he siððan est
ofer wæg gewat; wæn æfter ran;
ðus Heardingas ðone hæle nemdun.

23. Eþel byþ oferleof æghwylcum men,
gif he mot ðær rihtes and gerysena on
brucan on bolde bleadum oftast.

24. Dæg byþ drihtnes sond, deore mannum,
mære metodes leoht, myrgþ and tohiht
eadgum and earmum, eallum brice.

25. Ac byþ on eorþan elda bearnum
flæsces fodor, fereþ gelome
ofer ganotes bæþ; garsecg fandaþ
hwæþer ac hæbbe æþele treowe.

26. Æsc biþ oferheah, eldum dyre
stiþ on staþule, stede rihte hylt,
ðeah him feohtan on firas monige.

27. Yr byþ æþelinga and eorla gehwæs
wyn and wyrþmynd, byþ on wicge fæger,
fæstlic on færelde, fyrdgeatewa sum.

28. Iar byþ eafix and ðeah a bruceþ
fodres on foldan, hafaþ fægerne eard
wætre beworpen, ðær he wynnum leofaþ.

29. Ear byþ egle eorla gehwylcun,
ðonn[e] fæstlice flæsc onginneþ,
hraw colian, hrusan ceosan
blac to gebeddan; bleda gedreosaþ,
wynna gewitaþ, wera geswicaþ.

1. Wealth is a comfort to all men;
yet must every man bestow it freely,
if he wish to gain honour in the sight of the Lord.

2. The aurochs is proud and has great horns;
it is a very savage beast and fights with its horns;
a great ranger of the moors, it is a creature of mettle.

3. The thorn is exceedingly sharp,
an evil thing for any knight to touch,
uncommonly severe on all who sit among them.

4. The mouth is the source of all language,
a pillar of wisdom and a comfort to wise men,
a blessing and a joy to every knight.

5. Riding seems easy to every warrior while he is indoors
and very courageous to him who traverses the high-roads
on the back of a stout horse.

6. The torch is known to every living man by its pale, bright flame;
it always burns where princes sit within.


7. Generosity brings credit and honour, which support one's dignity;
it furnishes help and subsistence
to all broken men who are devoid of aught else.

8. Bliss he enjoys who knows not suffering, sorrow nor anxiety,
and has prosperity and happiness and a good enough house.

9. Hail is the whitest of grain; it is whirled from the vault of heaven
and is tossed about by gusts of wind and then it melts into water.

10. Trouble is oppressive to the heart;
yet often it proves a source of help and salvation
to the children of men, to everyone who heeds it betimes.

11. Ice is very cold and immeasurably slippery;
it glistens as clear as glass and most like to gems;
it is a floor wrought by the frost, fair to look upon.

12. Summer is a joy to men, when God, the holy King of Heaven,
suffers the earth to bring forth shining fruits
for rich and poor alike.

13. The yew is a tree with rough bark,
hard and fast in the earth, supported by its roots,
a guardian of flame and a joy upon an estate.

14. Peorth is a source of recreation and amusement to the great,
where warriors sit blithely together in the banqueting-hall.


15. The Eolh-sedge is mostly to be found in a marsh;
it grows in the water and makes a ghastly wound,
covering with blood every warrior who touches it

16. The sun is ever a joy in the hopes of seafarers
when they journey away over the fishes' bath,
until the courser of the deep bears them to land.

17. Tiw is a guiding star; well does it keep faith with princes;
it is ever on its course over the mists of night and never fails.


18. The poplar bears no fruit; yet without seed it brings forth suckers,
for it is generated from its leaves.
Splendid are its branches and gloriously adorned
its lofty crown which reaches to the skies.

19. The horse is a joy to princes in the presence of warriors.
A steed in the pride of its hoofs,
when rich men on horseback bandy words about it;
and it is ever a source of comfort to the restless.

20. The joyous man is dear to his kinsmen;
yet every man is doomed to fail his fellow,
since the Lord by his decree will
commit the vile carrion to the earth.

21. The ocean seems interminable to men,
if they venture on the rolling bark
and the waves of the sea terrify them
and the courser of the deep heed not its bridle.

22. Ing was first seen by men among the East-Danes,
till, followed by his chariot,
he departed eastwards over the waves.
So the Heardingas named the hero.

23. An estate is very dear to every man,
if he can enjoy there in his house
whatever is right and proper in constant prosperity.

24. Day, the glorious light of the Creator, is sent by the Lord;
it is beloved of men, a source of hope and happiness to rich and poor,
and of service to all.

25. The oak fattens the flesh of pigs for the children of men.
Often it traverses the gannet's bath,
and the ocean proves whether the oak keeps faith
in honourable fashion.

26. The ash is exceedingly high and precious to men.
With its sturdy trunk it offers a stubborn resistance,
though attacked by many a man.

27. Yr is a source of joy and honour to every prince and knight;
it looks well on a horse
and is a reliable
equipment for a journey.

28. Iar is a river fish and yet it always feeds on land;
it has a fair abode encompassed by water, where it lives in happiness.

29. The grave is horrible to every knight,
when the corpse quickly begins to cool
and is laid in the bosom of the dark earth.
Prosperity declines, happiness passes away
and covenants are broken.



Litteratur:
¤ Bruce Dickens, Runic and heroic poems of the old Teutonic peoples, 1915.





The Anglo-Saxon 31 Runic Futhorc after Dicken's Transliteration System

31-futhorc-dickens.jpg





Codex Cotton (33 runic Futhorc):

ANGLSAKSISKE CODEX COTTON





Hickes' Thesaurus Grammatica Anglo-Saxonica:

ANGLSAKSISK RUNER





Codex Sangallensis 878:

Codex Sangallensis 878
The Anglo-Saxon futhorc (abecedarium anguliscum) as presented in Codex Sangallensis 878 (9th century).

Literature: Codex Sangallensis 878.





The Runes Names and Sound Values:

ANGLSAKSISKE RUNER

1 = Feo ........ f 12 = Jara ...... j 23 = Daeg ...... d
2 = Ur ......... u 13 = Yr ........ e` 24 = Otael ...... o
3 = Thorn .... th 14 = Pertra ... p 25 = Ac .......... lang a
4 = Os ......... short a 15 = Eolh ...... r 26 = Asec ....... short a
5 = Rad ....... r 16 = Sigel ...... s 27 = Yr .......... y
6 = Ken ....... k 17 = Tir ........ t 28 = Ior .......... io
7 = Geofu .... g 18 = Beroc .... b 29 = Ear ......... ea
8 = Wynn .... w 19 = Eoh ....... e 30 = Cweorp ... qu
9 = Hagall .... h 20 = Mann ..... m 31 = Calk ........ k
10 = Nied ..... n 21 = Lagu ...... l 32 = Stan ........ st
11 = Is ......... i 22 = Ing ........ ng 33 = Gar ......... hard g






ANGLO-SAXON RUNIC INSCRIPTIONS




The Brandon pin

Pins is a jewel in many different sizes and shapes, but which in principle is a needle with a head, which is used to attach for example hair or clothing firm. The Brandon needle head has a diameter of 3.6 cm, and it is plated and decorated with two animals with wings. The needle is dated to the late 700s or early 800s.

The runic inscription, which is an unfinished Futhorc, carved into the back of the needle and reads:

fuþorcgwhnijipxstbeml ? doe

There are some scratches after the inscription, which possibly is an attempt to make the Futhorc inscription finished.

Literature:
¤ R.I.Page, An Introduction to English Runes,, 1973 ISBN 978-0-85115-946-1, side 30.
¤ Webster, Leslie and Janet Backhouse, The Making of England, no. 66 b, p. 82.





The Thames Scramasax - The Sax of Beagnoth
ANGLSAKSISKE  Thames knife Navnet....
ANGLSAKSISKE  Thames knife Futhorc....
Foto: Wikipedia
ANGLSAKSISKE  Thames knife
Foto: Ogneslav ©

The knife is 81.1 cm long and is dated to the late 800s and was found in the mud in the Thames at Battersea in inner London. Knives of this type were often worn with swords as war equipment, but could also be used as tools, such as when hunting, then it could be suitable for skinning and gutting of animals. The knife also had symbolic significance, and could show your status in society, the full range from a free mand king.

The blade is richly decorated with copper, bronze and silver with zigzag ornaments and it has two runic texts.

The first text reads:
fuþorcgwhnij px.tbe.dlmoeaæyêa

This is a Futhorc, but the order of the runes is unusual and some runes has a distinctive shape as one among others can find in manuscripts. Page believes that the blacksmith who produced the knife, was not wellknown with the runes, but picked up the runic text from a manuscript. This issue is also well know from bracteates.

The secound text reads:
bêagnoþ

This is a man's name, and can either be the name of blacksmith, the owner or the knife.

Litteratur:
¤ The British Museum - Seax of Beagnoth.
¤ Wikipedia - Seax of Beagnoth.
¤ Tumblr.com - Seax of Beagnoth.
¤ Wilson, David M., Anglo-Saxon Ornamental Metalwork 700-1100 in the British Museum, no. 36, p. 146.
¤ Davidson, Hilda R. Ellis, The Sword in Anglo-Saxon England, p. 42.
¤ Gale, David A., ‘The seax’ in Weapons and Warfare in Anglo-Saxon England, p. 80.
¤ Page, R.I., ‘The Inscriptions’, pp. 70-71.
¤ Page, R.I., An Introduction to English Runes, p. 113.





The Malton Dress Pin - The Malton Pin
Malton dress pin
Foto: Ogneslav ©

This needle was found near Malton in North Yorkshire in 1996, and is dated to 700 AD. It is made of bronze, is 7.9 cm long and the head's diameter is 3.6 cm.

The runic inscription interpreted by Bob Oswald follows:
The first six runes in the inscription is Fehu (F), Uruz (U), Thurisaz (Th), Os (long O), Raido (R), Kaunas (K) and it is the first six runes in the Futhork.

The five runes are Gebo (G), Laguz (L), Ansuz (A), As (diphthong AE, also stated Y in Yorkshire / Durham Dialect) and Ehwaz (E, pronounced UH in the same dialect). You get "GLAYE".

"Glaye" is a dialect variant of the Anglo-Saxon word Gleaw, meaning quick-witted, wise, sensible or clever.

Literatur:
¤ http://www.christies.com: Bob Oswald





The Franks Casket
Franks coffin or casket measures 12.9 x 22.9 x 19.1 cm and is dated to ca. 700 AD. It is known that it was in a church in Haute Loire in the 1800s, when it was owned by the Auzon family, and later was split into several parts, but at last all the parts were gathered together and is now in British Museum.

The coffin is a great piece of work, and richly decorated with both Christians and motives related to pagan beliefs. There are eleven inscriptions, beautifully carved on the five sides of the casket. They are all runic texts, with the exception of three words that are skrevt with Latin letters respectively Latin and Old English language.

It is also used secret runes, in that consonants in the inscription are written in plain form, while vowels are replaced with arbitrary shapes.

The Franks Casket
Photo: flickr.com

Above where the three wise men are depicted, stands a small inscription for himself which reads:
mægi


The text around pictures reads:
fisc · flodu · | ahofonferg | enberig |
warþga: sricgrornþærheongreutgiswom |
hronæsban


Runic text is accompanied to Page, two lines of alliterative verse:
fisc flodu ahof på fergenberig
Warth gasric grorn Thaer han på Greut giswom


According Page can this be translated "the flood lifted up the fish on the cliff-bank. The whale became sad, where he swam on the shingle. Whale´s bone"

The text can be a riddle that describes the origin of the material used to produce the coffin, namely whalebone.

The Franks Casket
Photo: flickr.com

The left side shows Romulus and Remus being nursed by a wolf (Shewolf) and men with spears at each side on both sides.

The runic text reads:
romwalusandreumwalustwægen | gibroþær |
afoeddæhiæwylifinromæcæstri: | oþlæunneg


The text can be interpreted according Page "Romwalus og Reumwalus, twægen gibroþær, afoeddæ hiæ wylif i Romæcæstri, oþlæ unneg"

"Romulus and Remus, two brothers, a she-wolf nourished them in Rome, far from their native land".

The Franks Casket
Photo: flickr.com

The rear panel portrays Titus attack on Jerusalem in the first Jewish-Roman war. In the above section to the left we see the Romans, led by Titus, attacking a domed building, probably the temple in Jerusalem. Top right we see the Jewish population flee. In the lower part to the left where dom is written, announces a sitting judge, the fate of the defeated Jews, who are sold as slaves. In the lower right scene is the one where gisl is written, they are passed away as slaves / hostages.

The inscription is both written with runes and Latin letters, partly in Old English and partly in Latin. Roman letters specified in uppercase.

The inscription reads:
hennes fegtaþ titus slutten giuþeasu
HIC FUGIANT HIERUSALIM afitatores
dom / gisl


Here Titus and a Jew fight: Here its inhabitants flee from Jerusalem. Judgement / Hostage

The Franks Casket
Photo: flickr.com

On the left side we see an animal figure sitting on a small rounded mound opposite an armed warrior with helmet. In mid seen a standing animal, usually interpreted as a horse. At right are three figures with robes with a hood. The two on each side keeps maybe the person in the middle stuck.

There have been very discussion on the interpretation of the runic text, including because runes written without spaces between words, and partly because two runes are broken or missing. It is also used secret runes by vowels is encrypted and written with "unknown symbols".

Raymond Page reads the inscription:
Hennes Hos sitiþ på harmberga
AGL [ . ] drigiþ SWA hiræ Ertae gisgraf
sarden Sorga og Sefa torna .
risci / Wudu / bita


Here Hos sits on the sorrow-mound; She suffers distress as Ertae had imposed it upon her, a wretched den (?wood) of sorrows and of torments of mind. Rushes / wood / biter"

The Franks Casket
Photo: Wikipedia

The inscription reads: aegili

Thats is the mans name Egil

There are many who have argued that the lid of the coffin, because of runetekten aegili portrays a lost legend of a named Egil.

Literature:
¤ The British Museum The Franks Casket.
¤ Wikipedia - The Franks Casket.
¤ J. Huston McCulloch - The Franks Casket.
¤ Wikistrike - The Franks Casket.
¤ Preterist Archive - The Franks Casket.
¤ Asawiki - The Franks Casket.
¤ Video på Youtube - In Focus: Franks Casket.
¤ Bilde av The Franks Casket.
¤ Beckwith, John, Ivory Carvings in Early Medieval England, 700-1200, no. 1, p. 18.
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, pp. 86-87.
¤ Webster, Leslie and Janet Backhouse (ed.), The Making of England, no. 70, p. 103.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.
¤ Bruce-Mitford, Rupert, Aspects of Anglo-Saxon Archeology. Sutton Hoo and other Discoveries
¤ Alcuin, Alcuini Epistolae, Ernst Ludwig Dümmler (ed.), Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Epistolae 4, Epistolae Karolini Aevi II, Berolini apud Weidmannos, 1895, letter no. 124, ll. 21-23, p. 183.
¤ ‘Documents bearing on Beowulf’ in Bruce Mitchell and Fred C. Robinson, Beowulf. An Edition with Relevant Shorter Texts, 2006, p. 225.





The Ruthwell Cross
The Ruthwell Cross The Ruthwell Cross The Ruthwell Cross
Photo:Wikipedia

The Ruthwell Cross is an Anglo-Saxon cross, is probably from 700 AD when Ruthwell was part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria in the current Scotland.

Korset har følgende runeinnskrift:

Krist wæs on rodi. Hweþræ'/ þer fusæ fearran kwomu / æþþilæ til anum.

Christ was on the cross. But then quick ones came from afar, nobles, all together.

The Runic text is a part of "The Dream of Rood", which is one of the earliest English-language poems. Although the language bears more resemblance to old Scots (the linguistic heritage of Angles in Scotland). The poem contained in a longer version in manuscript form and describes the crucifixion of Christ, set from the cross, and tells the story of his own suffering.

The Dream av Rood:

God almighty stripped himself,
when he wished to climb the cross
bold before all men.
to bow I dared not,
but had to stand firm

I held high the great King,
heaven's Lord. I dared not bend.
Men mocked us both together.
I was slick with blood
sprung from the man's side.

Christ was on the cross.
But then quick ones came from afar,
nobles, all together. I beheld it all.
I was hard hit with grief; I bowed to warriors' hands.

Wounded with spears,
they laid him, limb-weary.
At his body's head they stood.
There they looked to heaven's Lord.

Litteratur:
¤ Norsk Wikipedia.
¤ Wikipedia - The Ruthwell Cross.
¤ Youtube video - The Ruthwell Cross and The Dream of the Rood.
¤ Youtube video - The Dream of the Rood - Ruthwell Cross.
¤ BBC - Ruthwell Cross.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ R.I.Page, An Introduction to English Runes,, 1973 ISBN 978-0-85115-946-1
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Bewcastle Cross

Photo: Stephens

The Runic inscriptions on the cross is both worn and damaged over the years, and the interpretation of them are not sure. There are literally that only name Cyneburh is certainly readable on the cross. Cyneburh was a wife of Aldfrith who was king of Northumbria, and died around 664. But Cyneburh was a common name at the time, and certainly can not refer to as Aldfrith wife.

The inscription, which is certainly not interpreted, may sound read: "This slender pillar Hwætred, Wæthgar, and Alwfwold set up in memory of Alefrid, a king and son of Oswy. Pray for them, their sins, their souls".

The north side contains runes that are not easily readable, but can refer to Wulfere, among others, which was a son of Penda, the king of Mercia, and with reference to Egfrid son Oswy and brother of Alefrid who ascended to the throne in 670, have south side inscription been read as: "In the first year (of the reign) of Egfrid, king of this kingdom [Northumbria]".

But that said, this interpretation is not sure.

Literature:
¤ Wikipedia - The Bewcastle Cross
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ Wikipedia foto.
¤ www.bewcastle.com foto.
¤ R.I.Page, An Introduction to English Runes,, 1973 ISBN 978-0-85115-946-1.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Loveden Hill Urn
Loveden Hill urn
Photo: Ogneslav ©

The inscription on a ceramic urn dated 5-6 century AD found in a grave on fire Loved Hill, Lincolnshire. Among the remnants in the urn it was a comb made of bone, fragments of bronze which had been distorted by heat, parts of wooden brooches, pieces of iron and molten glass beads of a chain, showing that it was a dead kvinde of middle rank.

The urn is decorated with deep pressure of a stamp with the same methods like many other Anglo-Saxon urns are decorated. The stamps were often made of bone or wood, and they were used creatively. Pistons designs vary from simple annular stamps with a swastika and stylized snakes. The stamps are sometimes found on pottery in widely different geographic locations, which indicates more of a pottery industry, than one that produces goods for the local community.

The Runes reads:
Loveden Hill urn
Photo: R.I. Page

The runes are not interpreted.

Literature:
¤ Wikimedia - Loveden Hill urns.
¤ C. Haith, 'Pottery in early Anglo-Saxon England' in Pottery in the making: world-9 (London, The British Museum Press, 1997), pp. 146-51, fig. 1.
¤ J.N.L. Myres, Anglo-Saxon pottery and the se (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1969).
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.
¤ J.N.L Myres, A corpus of Anglo-Saxon potter (Cambridge University Press, 1977).
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Thames Silver Mount
Thames silver mount
Photo: Ogneslav ©

This silver plated handle from 7-8 century is 18.8 cm long and was funded in dredged from Thames, near Westminster Bridge in 1866. It is decorated with an animal head with open mouth, showing teeth and tongue. The eyes are made of blue glass.

The Runic text, which does not make sense, reads:

sbe/rædht bcai | e/rh/ad/æbs

Literature:
¤ Foto fra Wikimedia.
¤ Wilson, David M., Anglo-Saxon Ornamental Metalwork 700-1100 in the British Museum, no. 45, p.153.
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, p. 29.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.
¤ Page, R. I., ‘The Inscriptions’, p. 78.
¤ Storms, Godfrid, Anglo-Saxon Magic, no. 86, p. 311





The Castor-By-Norwich Astragalus

Castor-by-Norwich astragalus
Caistor-by-Norwich ankle bone is from a deer and found in an urn at Caistor St Edmund, Norfolk, England. The Ankle Bone has an inscription from 500's with the older 24 runers Futhark and reads:

??? raïhan

roe The inscription is may be the oldest known inscription found in England, and prior to the development of the Anglo-Frisian Futhorc. It has been speculated that the ankle bone may be an import, perhaps derived from Denmark in the earliest phase of the Anglo-Saxon immigration / okupasjon Britania.

The inscription is an important testimony to the Eihwaz-rune and the h-rune with the Nordic simple diogonalkvist, and not the double diogonalkvist, which later became common in the Anglo-Frisian runic inscriptions.

Literature:
¤ Wikimedia - Castor-by-Norwich astragalus





The Chessell Down Scabbard Plate
Christer Hamp: Chessell Down scabbard plate
Photo: Christer Hamp

The Chessell Down sword necklace seizure is made of silver and measures approximately 4 x 1 cm, has a runic inscription, and was found in 1855 in a tomb from about 500 in Chessell Down, near Shalfleet, Isle of Wight.

The inscription reads:

æko : -œri

increase to pain

The runic inscription has also been interpreted as a formula that contains the name Acca. In this case, the text will be the name of the owner, the name of the sword or the name of smith.

Literature:
¤ Christer Hamp - Chessell Down scabbard plate.
¤ R.I.Page, An Introduction to English Runes,, 1973 ISBN 978-0-85115-946-1.





The Crowle Cross
Crowle cross
Photo: Stephens

The Crowle cross measures 211 x 40 x 210 cm, and is originally carved out as a cross shaft. It is now located in the rear of the ship in the local parish church of St. Oswald. Until 1919 it was used as a lintel over the west door. Most probably is the stone has been preserved because of the Norman masons reuse, when the church was built in 1150 AD.

The Crowle cross's age is uncertain, but there is a reasonable degree of certainty that it must have been carved before 1000 AD. The use of runes in England died out around 1000 AD, when it was banned by King Knut (1017-1036) to use runes.

The runes are so worn and broken, that it is difficult to interpret them, but two proposals to interpretation is the following:

Still mind the book, never..."

or

Bestow a prayer upon Nun Lin".

Literature:
Wikipedia - Crowle cross.
¤ R.I.Page, An Introduction to English Runes,, 1973 ISBN 978-0-85115-946-1.
¤ www.megalithic.co.uk.
¤ Bilde fra wikipedia.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Derby Bone Plate
Derby bone plate BM.jpg
Photo: Ogneslav ©

It is uncertain how this bone plate is used, but it is dated to the year 700 - 1000. It measures 9 x 2.3 x 0.3 cm and is now preserved in the British Museum.

godgecaþaræhaddaþiþiswrat

A good interpretation is not yet found, but Alfred Bammesberger suggest reading the text:

gud GECA þaræ Hadda thi dette Wrat

"God, help this Hadde (a woman’s name), who wrote this".

Literature:
¤ Bately, Janet and Vera I. Evison, ‘The Derby bone piece’, Medieval Archaeology 5 (1961), p. 302.
¤ Janet Bately and Vera I. Evison, ‘The Derby bone piece’, pp. 302-305.
¤ Bammesberger, Alfred, ‘Three Old English runic inscriptions’ in Old English Runes and Their Continental Background, Alfred Bammesberger (ed.), Anglistische Forschungen, Heft 217 Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, Heidelberg, 1991, p. 134.
¤ R.I.Page, An Introduction to English Runes, 1973 ISBN 978-0-85115-946-1.





The Dover Brooch
Dover brooch
Photo: wikipedia.

The Dover brooch is made of gold and silver, and is dated to the 6th or 7th seventh century. It was found under an excavation of a cemetery in Buckland near Dover, Kent in 1952. The inscription has two runic texts, both with frame lines:

The first contains these three runesiwd.

The second contains 5 runes, where the first is the b and the last is the s or b.

There are not found some satisfactory translation.

Literature:
¤ Vera I. Evison.
¤ Evison, Vera I., ‘The Dover rune brooch’ in ‘Notes’, The Antiquaries Journal, vol. XLIV (1964), pp. 244-245.
¤ R.I.Page, An Introduction to English Runes,, 1973 ISBN 978-0-85115-946-1.
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





The Harford Farm Brooch
HARFORD FARM BROOCH
Photo: R.I. Page

The inscription is written on the back of the brooch, which dated to the 600s.

The inscription reads:

luda: giboetæsi gilæ

"Luda repaired the brooch".

Literature:
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, p. 103.
¤ Wikipedia - Harford Farm Brooch.
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





The Dover Stone
DOVER STONE
Photo: Stephens

The inscription reads:
jislhêard

Gislherd

Gislherd is a mans name.

Literature:
¤ Runes: An Introduction, Ralph Warren Victor Elliott.
¤ R.I.Page, An Introduction to English Runes,, 1973 ISBN 978-0-85115-946-1.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Ash Gilton Pommel
ASH GILTON POMMEL
Photo: finds.org.uk

The Ash Gilton pommel is a silver plated pyramidal sword pommel dated to the 6th century. It is now at Liverpool City Museum. The inscription is surrounded by ornamentation and is not so easy to read. A pommel is part of the handle of a sword.

The inscription reads:
????ASH GILTON POMMEL?????

?? emsigimer ????


"? I am ... victory ??????".

Literature:
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Gilton Pommel
The silver gilt sword pommel from Gilton, Kent, is now in Liverpool Museum. The inscription is read as a x-rune, which is rare rune in the Anglo-Saxon England, since it represents a sound that is not required in old English. Just a few examples of rune is handed over. In manuscripts the x-rune is called "eolhx, iolx or ilx," a name that is associated with the old English verb ealgian, which means "to protect".

A pommel is part of the handle of a sword.

Literature:
¤ R.I.Page, An Introduction to English Runes, 1973 ISBN 978-0-85115-946-1.





The Faversham Pommel
Faversham pommel
Photo: finds.org.uk

The silver plated sword pommel from Faversham, Kent, is now preserved in Britsh Museum. At each end of the pommel, there is a t-rune. Since this rune is written on a sword, it can fit to interpret rune as a ideograph. The Anglo-Saxon name for t-rune is "tir / resort", referring to Tiw, the Germanic god of war.

A pommel is part of the handle of a sword.

This is perhaps an example of what we read in verse 6 in Sigerdifamal:

Sigrúnar skaltu kunna,
ef þú vilt sigr hafa,
ok rista á hjalti hjörs,
sumar á véttrinum,
sumar á valböstum,
ok nefna tysvar Tý.
Seiersruner skal du riste
om du vil seier ha
skjær dem på sverdets hjalt
somme på vettrimer
somme på valboster
nevn så to ganger Ty
Victory Runes should you know
If you want to have victory
carve them on the sword's hilt
some on the sheath
some on the blade
name then Tiwaz two times

Since this inscription also is from Kent, as the Holborough spearhead, it can also be a possibility that this is a could be a kind of a signature (Evison).

Literature:
¤ R.I.Page, An Introduction to English Runes,, 1973 ISBN 978-0-85115-946-1.





The Holborough Spearhead
This iron spear from the 7th century is showing an another example of an possible inscription of the t-rune (0.5 cm), anglo, in this case, it is sandwiched contrast in the metal.

Since this rune is written on a sword, it can fit to interpret rune as a ideograph. The Anglo-Saxon name for t-rune is "tir / resort", referring to Tiw, the Germanic god of war.

A pommel is part of the handle of a sword.

This is perhaps an example of what we read in verse 6 in Sigerdifamal:

Sigrúnar skaltu kunna,
ef þú vilt sigr hafa,
ok rista á hjalti hjörs,
sumar á véttrinum,
sumar á valböstum,
ok nefna tysvar Tý.
Seiersruner skal du riste
om du vil seier ha
skjær dem på sverdets hjalt
somme på vettrimer
somme på valboster
nevn så to ganger Ty
Victory Runes should you know
If you want to have victory
carve them on the sword's hilt
some on the sheath
some on the blade
name then Tiwaz two times


It resembles the tradition of the Faversham pommel, which also has t-rune. Since this inscription also is from Kent, as the Holborough spearhead, it can also be a possibility that this is a could be a kind of a signature (Evison).

Literature:
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, p. 92.
¤ www.kentarchaeology.org.uk.





The Hackness Stone

HACKNESS STONE HACKNESS STONE HACKNESS STONE HACKNESS STONE HACKNESS STONE
Photo: University og Leeds

The Anglo-Saxon stone at Hackness, North Yorkshire is a special monument, as it has inscriptions both Anglo-Saxon runes, Scandinavian runes and Latin letters and with characters similar the Ogham alphabet.

Today runes not legible, but Stephen reads the runes:
HACKNESS STONE

emundr o on æsboa

"Emund owns-me on (at) Asby

Literature:
¤ Hackness stone fra University og Leeds..
¤ www.academia.edu.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Hartlepool Stones

HARTLEPOOL STONE HARTLEPOOL STONE
Photo: Stephens.

The Hartlepool stones are so called "pillow-stones," which was found under the head of the buried. Similar stones are also found in Lindisfarne.

HARTLEPOOL STONES

hilddigyþ
This is the woman's name.

HARTLEPOOL STONES

hildiþryþ
This is the woman's name.

Liiteratur:
¤ Runes: An Introduction, Ralph Warren Victor Elliott.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Kirkheaton Stone
 Kirkheaton stone
Photo: www.huddersfield1.co.uk

Eoh worohhtae

Eoh wrought (this)

or

Eoh woro htæ

Eoh made (me)

Literature:
¤ www.archaeology.wyjs.org.uk.
¤ www.huddersfield1.co.uk.
¤ Seville Corpus of Northern English.





The Lancaster Cross
Lancaster cross
Photo: The Society of Antiquaries in London, 1841.

The inscription reads:
gibidæþ foræ cynibalþ cuþbere[ht]

Pray for Cynibalth, Cuthbert

Literature:
¤ Wikipedia - Lancaster_Priory.
¤ Foto: British Museum.
¤ Further Notes on the Runic Cross at Lancaster, John Mitch Kemble.





The Leeds Stone
Leeds stone
Photo: Stephens

cune anlaf

King Olaf

This can be Anlaf or Olaf, the son of a Danish king who together with his brothers, Sitric and Ivar came to Ireland 853, and invaded Britania in 866-867, and presumably died there.

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Lindisfarne Stone I
Lindisfarne Runic Stone I
Photo: Ogneslav ©

This tombstone is dated to about the year 700, and is one of many Anglo-Saxon carved stones found at Lindisfarne. The stone bears the name of a woman, Osgyth.

Literature:
¤ heritage-explorer.co.uk.





The Mortain Casket - Mortainkisten

The Mortain coffin is shaped like a house and measures 13.5 x 11.5 x 5 cm, and was found in the treasures of church of Saint Evroult, Mortain, in Normandy in 1864. The coffin it dated to the second half of the eighth or the first half of the ninth century. The coffin is made of wood, but is plated with bronze. The coffin is characterized by Christian motives.

A runic text in three lines of old English is written on the back of the lid:

+goodh | e | lpe:æadan
Þiiosneciis | m | eelgewar
ahtæ


Good helpe: Æadan þiiosne ciismel gewarahtæ.

"God help Æadan who made this cismel".

There are also inscriptions in Latin letters on the coffin.

Literature:
¤ Webster, Leslie and Janet Backhouse (ed.), The Making of England, no. 137, pp. 175-176.
¤ Runes: An Introduction Av Ralph Warren Victor Elliott.





The Brunswick Casket
BRUNSWICK CASKET BRUNSWICK CASKET BRUNSWICK CASKET
BRUNSWICK CASKET

The coffin is made of ivory and measures 12.6 x 12.6 x 6.8cm. It is also known as Gandersheim coffin from the monastery in Saxony, where it was found. It is now kept in Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum in Braunschweig.

The coffin was perhaps brought to the continent by an Anglo-Saxon pilgrim before the Vikings attacked Ely in the year 870.

The inscription reads:
uritneþiisixhiræliinmc*hælixæliea*

Þiis and liin kan be read "this" and "lin", but the rest is not so easy to interpret.

Literature:
¤ Brunswick Runic Caske.
¤ Beckwith, John, Ivory Carvings in Early Medieval England, 700-1200, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Arts Council of Great Britain, London, 1974.
¤ Webster, Leslie and Janet Backhouse (ed.), The Making of England.
¤ Beckwith, John, Ivory Carvings in Early Medieval England, 700-1200





The Sandwich Stone
Sandwich stone
The stone is now in the Royal Museum at Canterbury.

Sandwich stone

The inscription reads:
ræhæbul

This is most probably a name.

Literature:
¤ The Sandwich runestone, R.W.V. Elliott.
¤ I.R.Page. Early runic Inscriptions In England.





The Selsey Gold Fragments
Selsey gold fragments
Photo: Wikipedia

These two small gold strips (1.8 x 0.5 cm)) appears to be part of the same object, possibly a ring. They were found on a beach near Selsey, West Sussex, and they are now in the British Museum. The inscription is dated to between the late 6th to 8th century.

The inscription read:
Selsey gold fragments

brnrn
anmæ
or anmu or anml

There is no good interpretation of the runic text.

Literature:
¤ Bruce Eugene Nilsson, 1973.
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.
¤ Hines, John, ‘The runic inscriptions of early Anglo-Saxon England’ in Britain 400-600: Language and History, Alfred Bammesberger and Alfred Wollmann





The Southampton Bone Plaque I
southampton-bone-plaque
Photo: R.I. Page

These two bone fragments are dated to the 9th century, both decorated with a pattern and they have some runes inscribed on edge of the plate. Unfortunately the edge is damaged, so that only the first d-rune can be seen in its entirety. The other runes can be pdln, but no interpretation can be given.

Literature:
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, p. 160.





The Southampton Bone II
Innskriften kan ikke dateres presist, men benet innskriften er riiset på, er fundet i søppelgrop i den tidlige bosetningen i Southampton, Hamwih. I følge I.R. Page, kan innskriften dateres til mellom midt i 7. århundre og 11. århundre. The inscription can not be dated precisely, but the bone the inscription is written on, is found in the garbage pit in the early settlement Southampton, Hamwih. According I.R. Page, the inscription is dated to between the middle of the 7th century and 11th century.

The four runes on the leg reads:
catæ

The word may be related to Old English cat(t) or catte, ie "cat" or "she-cat".

Alternatively, the inscription can be read katæ,who will be Old-Frisian and will mean "knuckle-bones"

Literature:
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, p. 168-169.
¤ Campbell, James (ed.), The Anglo-Saxons, pp. 102-103.





The Whithorn Stone

Whithorn stone
Photo: megalithic.co.uk

The inscription is probably dated to the 9th century or 10th century and reads:
"Pray for Hwitu".

Hwitu is a woman's name meaning "white house".

Literature:
¤ www.megalithic.co.uk.
¤ www.scotsman.com.





IK 388 - Welbeck Hill Bracteate

The silver Bracteate from Welbeck Hill, located in Irby, Lincolnshire, England is in private ownership. It is found in a woman's grave and is dated to the 6th century. (Hines 1990:445).
IK nr. 388
Photo: Stephens

The runes are leftward and reads: law

law may be a mistranslation of the known protective word laþu.

Literature:
¤ Bracteates with runes.
¤ Hines 1990.





The Whitby Comb
Whitby comb
Photo: British museum

The comb was found among rubbish near the ruins of Whitby Abbey. The Runic text begins with the formula dæus mæus. The text continues with a prayer to God to help person, who may be the creator or owner of the comb.

The runes reads:
dæusmæus | godaluwalu | dohelipæcy

Page says that Aluwaludo means eallwealda, i.e. "Almighty".

"My God: may God Almighty help Cy ..."

Literature:
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, pp. 164-165.
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.
¤ Tegning av Witby kammen.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Whitby Spindle Whorl
Whitby Disc
Photo: Ogneslav ©

The spinning wheel was found during excavations at Whitby Abbey, and is now preserved in the British Museum.
The inscription contains three runes, but only the middle rune, an e-rune, can be read by sure:

leu or ler or uer

All suggestions may be a name.

Literature:
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, p. 170.
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





The Willoghby-On-The-Wolds Bowl
The Bronze bowl is possibly imported from Rhineland and is dated to the 5th - 7th century.

The inscription consists of a rune:
æ

There is a possibility that the rune should be interpreted as an ideograph.
The Æsc-rune may then be owner or creator's signature or name. Possibly an import from the Rhineland.

Literature:
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, side 91





The Keswick Disc
Lancashire ring
Photo: R.I. Page

This plate of a copper alloy is 2.9 cm in diameter, and is found in river Yare at Keswick.
We do not know what it is used for, but the text can be followed Page be read:

+ (? or g, n) tlim*(=?s)um(? r d)

There is no reasonable interpretation of the runic text.

Literature:
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, p. 161.
¤ Nytt om runer, nr. 12, side 13.





The Brandon Tweezers Fragment
This fragment of silver is part of a tweezers, dated to the 8th century. Tweezer has a runeinnskkrift which reads:

+ aldred

The inscription is a man's name.

Literature:
¤ Webster, Leslie and Janet Backhouse (ed.), The Making of England, no. 66 o, p. 85.
¤ Anglosaxon indskrifter
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, p. 34.





The Brandon Bone Handle
The handle which appears to be made to a tool, is made of bone.

The inscription reads:
wohswildumde[.]ran

wohs wildum deoran or wohs wildum deor en

"(I) grew on a wild beast".

The text refers to the bone-share the handle is made of.

Literature:
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, pp. 169-170.
¤ Anglosaxon indskrifter.
¤ Webster, Leslie and Janet Backhouse (ed.), The Making of England, no. 65, p. 81.





The Heacham Tweezers
The Heacham tweezer is of metal and dated to the 6th or 7th century, and is held at The Castle Museum in Norwich. Unfortunately, the metal heavily corroded and runes are not well preserved. It appears that it is the same text that is repeated twice.

Of the runes that can be read is a d-, f- and u-rune.

There is no interpretation of the inscription.

Literature:
¤ Anglosaxon indskrifter.





The London Bone
THE LONDON BONE
Photo: Nytt om Runer

The bone piece were found in 1996 during excavations at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, London. There is a hollow leg, which may have been devoted as a handle for a tool. It is dated to the middle of the 8th century. The Rune text contains some vertical lines that can be only one kind of hyphenation.

The inscription reads:
oeoewþrd or oeoewwrd or oeoeþþrd or oeoeþwrd

The Runic text makes no sense in any of the proposals for reading.

Literature:
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, pp. 169-170.
¤ Anglosaxon indskrifter.
¤ Page, R. I., ‘Runes at the Royal Opera House, London’, Nytt om Runer 12 (1997), p. 13.





The Wardley Copper-Alloy Plate
This metal plate was found with the help of metal detectors and is dated to the 8th century.

The copper plate has implications inscription:

olburg

The inscription may be a part of or a woman name Ceolburg.

Literature:
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, p. 30.
¤ Anglosaxon indskrifter.





The Blythburgh Bone Writing Tablet
This rectangular-legged breed (9.4 x 6.3 cm) was found before 1902 and are now in the British Museum, is dated to the 8th century. The back of the board has a recess filled with wax, which is written a rune.

The inscription reads:
unþ | ocuat**þ | lsunt | mamæmæm

In the sequencelsunt it looks like the author is trying to write a Latin verb with runes, while the sequence mamæmæm, it looks like the person practicing writing runes m and æ .

Literature:
¤ Webster, Leslie and Janet Backhouse (ed.), The Making of England, no. 65, p. 81.
¤ Anglosaxon indskrifter.





The Mote Of Mark Bone
This small bone fragment (3.3 cm) has a runic inscription, which presumably is dated 650-750 years.

The inscription reads:
aþili

This can be a name in diminutive.

Diminutive is a derived word that denotes a smaller form of what the original word signifies. Diminutive form often with a suffix that is specific to that language. On Norwegian's diminutivsuffikset -ling for example badgers and manikin, but it is no longer used actively to form new words.

Literature:
¤ Anglosaxon indskrifter.
¤ Laing, L., ‘The Mote of Mark and the origins of Celtic interlace’, Antiquity 49 (1975), p. 101.
¤ wikipedia om Diminutiv.





The Spong Hill Rune Stample
MIRROR RUNES STAMPLE
Photo: R.I. Page

During excavation of a graveyard in Spong Hill, Norfolk, it found several urns with runes. It concerns inscriptions with alu-formula and three urns with so-called inverted runes, ltw, all inscriptions dated to the 5th century. (see Hines 1990: 434). Common to all mentioned inscriptions is that they are made with the help of a stamp. Thus we have a masseprduksjon of urns to do. The urns can be seen in The Castle Museum, Norwich.

The runic inscriptions were probably cherish the dead.

Literature:
¤ www.cornucopia.org.uk.
¤ www.englisc-gateway.com.
¤ 11.Howard_Ruth.pdf.





The Long Buckby Silver Strap-End Fragment
Long Buckby
Photo: www.finds.org.uk

The silver gilt fragment is broken at both ends and have a distinct h-rune inscribed. The length is 32 mm, and is dated to the second half of the 8th century.

Literature:
¤ finds.org.uk.





The Leek Stone
Leek stone
Photo: Medieval Archaeology.

The stone stands beside the church, and is composed of three parts. The runes are damaged and are not easy to read.

The readable runes reads:
isa and þ bibæ

It gives me no sense.

Literature:
¤ A runic fragment at Leek.





The Cramond Ring
THE CRAMOND RING
Photo: Stephens

The Cramond ring is in the National Museums Scotland and is dated to between AD 800 and AD 1000.

The inscription reads:
[.]ewor[.]el[.]u

There are differing opinions on the interpretation. National Museums Scotland interprets it "made". I.R. Page rather inter alia that there may be a name.

Literature:
¤ Page, An Introduction to English Runes, p. 157.
¤ National Museums Scotland.





The Bramham Moor Ring
Bramham Moor Ring
Photo: Stephens

The Bramham Moor ring is 29mm in diameter and is made of gold. The ring is dated to the 9th century. The ring is kept in the National museum in Denmark (no. 8545). The runic text is a magic formula, and is in the same group as the Linstock castle ring, the Kingmoor ring, the copper ring from Northern England and Bramham Moor ring.

The inscription reads: ærkriuflt | kriuriþon | glæstæpon?tol

The text is interpreted as a magic formula, with a possible link to two Old English formulas against bleeding.

Literature:
¤ Wikimedia - Bramham Moor Ring.
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, Second Edition, The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, 1999, p. 112.
¤ Paul Johnson, Runics Inscription in Great Britain, 2001, ISBN 1-904263-40-2.





The Copper Ring From North of England
COPPER RING FROM NORTH ENGLAND
Photo: Stephens

The ring was found in 1869 and is now at Britsh Museum. Rune text is a magic formula, and is in the same group as rings from Linstock castle, Kingmoor and Bramham Moor and Linstock castle.

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.




The Kingmoor ring - The Greymoor Hill ring
Kingmoor ring
Photo: Ogneslav ©

This ring was found in Kingmoor in 1817. There is a large gold ring with runes, which is dated the ninth century, now in Britsh Mueum. The runic text is a magic formula, and is in the same group as including rings from Linstock castle and Bramham Moor

The inscription reads:

+ ærkriufltkriuriþonglæstæpon

The runic text is a magic formula.

Literature:
¤www.britishmuseum.org.
¤ Paul Johnson, Runics Inscription in Great Britain, 2001, ISBN 1-904263-40-2.
¤ Bilde fra British Museum.
¤ Bilde fra British Museum.
¤ Bilde fra British Museum.
¤ Bilde fra British Museum.
¤ Page, R.I., An Introduction to English Runes, pp. 112-113.





The Linstock castle Ring
The ring with runes is probably from the 9th century, and is made of agate. The ring are kept in the British Museum (catalog no. 186).

The inscription reads:
ery.ri.uf.dol.yri. þol.wles.te.pote.nol

I.R. Page (1999) believes that the runic text is an attempt to write a magic formula, inspired by the school which has been the source of Kingmoor and Bramham Moor rings but that the creator of Linstock Castle ring, has not been versed in the subject. This is also known among bracteates.

Literature:
¤ Page, An Introduction to English Runes, p. 112.
¤ wikipedia.
¤ www.digital.library.leeds.ac.uk.





The Agate Ring Of West Of England
AGATERINGEN FRA VEST-ENGLAND
Photo: Stephens

The Agate Ring ring from the west of England is made of agate, but is now stored at the Britsh Museum. The runic text is a magic formula, and is in the same group as the Linstock castle, the Kingmoor ring and the Bramham Moor ring.

Literature:
¤ Paul Johnson, Runics Inscription in Great Britain, 2001, ISBN 1-904263-40-2.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.
¤ R.I.Page, An Introduction to English Runes,, 1973 ISBN 978-0-85115-946-1.





The Wheatley Hill Ring
wheatley hill ring
Photo: Nytt om Runer

The ring is made of silver, measures 19 mm in diameter, and is dated to the 8th century.

The inscription reads:
[h]ringichatt[.]

"I am called a ring"

Literature:
¤ Page, An Introduction to English Runes, p. 169.
¤ www.ansax.com.
¤ Jessup, Ronald, Anglo-Saxon Jewellery, p. 169.





The Lancashire Ring
Lancashire ring
Photo: R.I. Page

The text is written with a mix of runes and Latin letters. Okasha, Jessup and Wilson dating the ring to 9th century, while Page prefer to keep it open until somewhere between before 800 to 1100 AD.

The inscription reads:
+ æDREDMECAHEAnREDMECagROf |.

"Ædred owns me, Eanred engraved me

Literature:
¤ Page, R. I., ‘The Inscriptions’ in Anglo-Saxon Ornamental Metalwork 700-1100 in the British Museum, p. 77.
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, p. 115 and pp. 219-220.





The St. Andrews Ring<
ST. ANDREWS
Foto: Stephens

This bronze ring is from Fife in Scotland and is dating the years 500-600.

The inscription reads:
isah

If one reads the inscription facing right as Isah, or left facing as Hasi, both reading methods, will give a man's name.

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Ring From Unknown Location In England
UKJENT STED
Foto: Stephens

The ring is dated to the year 800-900 and has a runic inscription.

The inscription reads:
owi

The Runic text is a man's name.

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.






The Coquet Island Ring

Coquet Island ring
Photo: Stephens

The ring is made of silver and dated to the year 800-900.

The inscription reads:
þis is siuilfur

Englesk: "This is silver".

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Selsey Ring
The ring is made of gold, is preserved in two parts at the British Museum and dated to the year 700-800.
Coquet Island ring

I.R. Page suggests that the inscription read:
bruþr niclas on el

"Brother Niclas on (of) El...".

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Thames Exchange Ring
Thames Exchange ringThames Exchange ring
Photo: Ogneslav ©

Finger ring made of brass is dated to the 900s. It is kept at the Museum of London.

The inscription read:
t futhniine

The first rune may be either a t-rune or ae-rune.

futh may represent the first letters of the runic alphabet, while ine at the end might be a man named "Ine".

However, also "fuþ" means fuð which is the term for the female pussy . The word in this sense is coated in many Nordic inscriptions from the Middle Ages, where scontext not give a doubt about what is being written. The inscriptions like this is not always understandable. Christians Londoners preserved some of the beliefs of their pagan ancestors, and used runes to write magic and spells.

Literature:
¤ archive.museumoflondon.org.uk.
¤ Nyt om runer





The Northumbria Bronch
Northumbria Bronch
Photo: Stephens

We do not know much about this locket because it is lost. It was last seen by Mr. Kemble in 1847, but we assume that it is from the year 600-700.
gudrd mec wroh(t)e. ælchfrith mec a(h)

Gudrid me wrougth. Ælchfrith oweth (owns)

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Falstone Stone
THE falstone Stone
Photo: Stephens

The inscription read:
eomær þoe seotteo
æftær roetberhtæ
begun æftær eomæ
gebidæd der saule


Eomær this set, after Hroetberth this beacon (mark, memoiral), after his eme (uncle). Bede (bid, pray-ye) the (his) soul

The same text is also written with Latin bogstaver. The stone can be from 700 AD.

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Lindisfarne Coffin - The Saint Cuthbert's Coffin
runes
Photo: Stephens

The Lindisfarne coffin is made of wood and has several short Lantin inscriptions, and one small inscription in runes. It is dated to the year 698. The runic inscription seems to be secondary, as it is in Latin and there are indications that it was copied from a manuscript.

The rune inscription is very damaged, but the following are legible:
ihs xps mat(t)[h](eus)

The inscription is interpreted "Jesus Matheus"

Literature:
¤ Wikipedia.
¤ Page, R. I., ‘Roman and runic on St. Cuthbert’s coffin’, s. 317 og s. 323-324.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





The Bingley Baptismal Font
bingley
Photo: Stephens

The Bingley Baptismal font is decorated with borders, and is dated to the year 768-770.

The inscription read:
eadbierth cunung
het hieawan doep-stan us
(G)ibid fur his saule


Eadbierth King. Hote (ordered, bade) to - hew this - Dip-Stone (font) for- us. Bid (pray-thou) for his soul.

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Thornhill Stone I
The Thornhill Stone I
Photo: Stephens

The stone is from Thornhill in Yorkshire and is dated to the year 700-800.

The inscription read:
eþelberth settæ
æfter eþelwini deringæ


Ethelberth set-up-this after Ethelwini Dering

Literature:
¤ www.huddersfield1.co.uk.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Thornhill Stone II
The Thornhill Stone II
Photo: Stephens

The stone is from Thornhill in Yorkshire and is dated to the year 700-800.

The inscription read:
eadred sete afte eateyonne

Eadred set up this after the lady Eateya

Literature:
¤ www.huddersfield1.co.uk.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Thornhill Stone III
The Thornhill Stone III
Photo: Stephens

The stone is from Thornhill in Yorkshire and is dated to the year 700-800.

The inscription consists of 4 lines in spelling rhyme:

igilsuiþ arærde
after berhtsuiþe
becun at bergi
gebiddaþ þær saule


Igilsuith a-reared (raised) after (in minne of) this beacon (pillar-staone) at (on, close to) the barrow (how, tumulus). Bid (pray-ay) for the soul.

Literature:
¤ www.huddersfield1.co.uk.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Chester-Le-Street Stone
The Chester-Le-Street Stone
Photo: Stephens

Chester-Le-Streetstenenfrom N. Durham and is dated to the year 700-800. In this inscription there are 7 characters, but only two runes, the rest are Latin letters.

The inscription read:
EADmUnD

Eadmund is a man's name.

Literature:
¤ www.huddersfield1.co.uk.
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Irton Stone
irton.jpg
Photo: Stephens

The Irton stone from Cumberland and is dated to the year 700-800.

The inscription read:
gibidæþ
foræ....


Bid-ey (pray) for...

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Bridekirk Baptismal Font
Bridekirk døpefont
Photo: Stephens

The baptism font is from Cumberland and is dated to the year 1100 to 1200. The runes are a mix of old-skandianavian and Old-English runes, and the language is a mixture of early Northern English and early Norse. The inscription is written in rhyme.

The inscription read:
rikarth he me iwrokte
and to this merthe ?erner me brokte


Richard he me I-wrougth (made), and to his mirth (beauty) yern (glad) me brougth

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.
¤ Bilde av døpefonten.





The Alnmouth Stone
The Alnmouth Stone
Photo: Stephens

The Alnmouth stone is from Northumberland and is dated to the year 913.

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Monk Wearmouth Stone
monk-wearmouth
Photo: Stephens

The Monk Wearmouth stone is from Durham and is dated to the year 822.

The inscription read:
tidfirþ

Tidfirth or Tidferth was the last bishop of Hexham.

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Kirkdale Stone
The stone is from Yorkshire and heavily damaged. The only rune that is legible is:
ng-rune.gif

Thats a ng-rune. Dated to the year 800-900.

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Bakewell Stone

Bakewell stone
Photo: Stephens

The Bakewell stone is from Derbyshire and is dated to the year 600-700.

The inscription read:
(m)ingh(o)
helg


The first line can be part of a name or a place names. The second line can be a fragment of the word "holy".

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





The Cleobury Mortimer Sun Dial

runes
Photo: Stephens

The Cleobury Mortimer solar disk is from Shropshire and is dated to the year 500-600.

The inscription read:
claæo iwi

Let the clow (pointer) eye (show you)!

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.
¤ Bilde av gjenstanden.





The Boarley Disc-Brooch.
The Boarley cobber broosh is found in Kent. The broosh is dated to the last part of the 6. or the first part of the 7. century.

The inscription read:
runes
atsil or ætsil

Presumably not the rune carver has not completed the intended text.

Literature:
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





The West Heslerton Cruciform Brooch
Copper brooch is from Yorkshire and it is cruciform. It is dated to the first part of the 6th century.

The inscription read:
runes

One can read the runic text either neim, if it is read from right to left, or mien, if one reads the runic text from left to right.

Literature:
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





Chessel Down I - Chessel Down Bronze Pail,
The Bronze pail that was found in woman's grave on the Isle of Wight and is dated to the year 520-570 (Hines 1990: 438). The team is importing goods from the eastern Mediterranean and the runes were carved over the original decoration, and thus it is not anticipated that the runes are carved when the team was created.

The inscription read:
???bwseeekkkaaa

The inscription is similar Secretes Runes, eg sequence þmkiiissstttiiilll from Gørlev. See more about Secretes Runes.

Literature:
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





Chessel Down II
The object is made of silver and was found in a rich man's tomb on the Isle of Wight.

The inscription read:
runes
æko:?ori

Literature:
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





Suffolk Gold Coins
Three gold coins Skilling, one from St. Albans and two from Coddenham in Suffolk is dated to about the year 660, is probably turned with the same stroke shape.

The inscription read:
runes
desaiona

Literature:
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





Kent II - Silver Coins from Kent
The coins from Kent belong to the so-called "pada"-coins and presumably turned approximately 660-670 years.

The inscription read:

runes
pada

Literature:
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





Kent III, IV Silver Coins
Silver coins from Kent is dated to the end of the 7th century.

The inscription read:
runes
æpa og epa

Literature:
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





The Upper Thames Valley Gold coins
Four gold coins were funded in Upper Thames Valley which is dated to the year 620.

The inscription read:
runes

Literature:
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





The Cleatham bowl
Cleatham copper bowl was funded in woman's grave in South Humberside Shire and is dated to the 6th to 7th century.

The inscription read:
runes
??edih eller hide??

Literature:
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





The Watchfield Copper-Alloy Fittings
Watch Field copper fittings was found in a man's grave on the border between Mercia and Wessex, is dated to the years 520-570.

The inscription read:
runes
hæriboki:wusæ

Literature:
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





The Wakerley Brooch
Wakerley brooch is from Northamptonshire and is made of a copper alloy. The broosh is dated to the year 525-560.

The inscription read:
runes
Buhui

Literature:
¤ Early Runic Inscriptions in England.





The Chessell Down Sword
Wyk, Utrecht, Nederland
Photo: Stephen

Chessell Down sword is found on the Isle Of Wight and is dated to the year 500-600.

The inscription read:
æco soeri

? Awe (terror, death and destruction) to the sere (brynie, armor, weapons, of the foe)! ?

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.
¤ Bilde av sverdet.




The Coin from Wyk, Utrecht
Wyk, Utrecht, Nederland
Photo: Stephen

The Silver Coin monogrammed can stand for King Ecgberht, king of Wessex, who died in the year 836.

The inscription read:
lul on áuasa / áusa

Lul on (of) Áuasa or Lul of Áusa (struck this piece)

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





Bracteate, Stephens no 74, England
Braketat england no 74.jpg
Photo: Stephen

The inscription read:
scanomodu

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884.





Bracteate, Stephens no 75, England
Braketat england no 75.jpg
Photo: Stephen

The inscription read:
æniwulu ku

Æniwulu (Anwulf) King

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884





Bracteate, Stephen no. 77, Eastleach Turville, Gloucestershire, England
Braketat eastleach turville
Photo: Stephen

The inscription read:
bea(r)tigo)

Thats a man's name.

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884





The Urswick Cross

There is no certain interpretation of the inscription.

Literature:
¤ www.megalithic.co.uk.
¤ monumentsnetwork.org.
¤ monumentsnetwork.org.





The Collingham Stone
THE COLLINGHAM STONE
Photo: Stephen

The Collingham stone is from Yorkshire and is dated to the year 651. Today it looks just as one stone, but is in reality two stones.

The inscription read:
æfter onswini cuning)

After Onswini, King

Literature:
¤ The Collingham Runic Inscription.





The Dearham Stone
THE COLLINGHAM STONE
Photo: Stephen

The Dirham stone is from Dirham in Cumberland and is dated to the year 850-950. The stone is damaged and a large part of the inscription is lost, but it is sure what once stood written.

The inscription read:
(krist s)u(l) gi-niæra

May Christ his soul nære (bless, save)!

Literature:
¤ Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884





The Llysfaen Ring
The ring is made of gold and niello and is dated to the 9th century. It is in the Victoria & Albert Museum.
The inscription consists both of Latin letters and a rune:
+ A | LH | ST | An
The text is interpreted as a old English name.

Litteratur:
¤ Okasha, A Hand-List of Anglo-Saxon Non-Runic Inscriptions, no 86, pp. 98-99.
¤ Inscription and communication in Anglo Saxon England





The Wardley Copper-Alloy Plate
The Metal plate was found using metal detectors and it is dated to the 8th century.
The inscription reads:
... olburg

This can be a part of a female name Ceolburg.

Litteratur:
¤ Page, R. I., An Introduction to English Runes, p. 30.
¤ Inscription and communication in Anglo Saxon England





The Heacham tweezers
The Tweezers is dated to the 6th or 7th century and is now preserved in the Castle Museum in Norwich. The metal is heavily corroded, so the two halves of the preserved texts, is not readable, but it seems to be the same text that is repeated two times.
The only runes which can be read is a d-rune, f-rune og en u-rune.

Litteratur:
¤ Inscription and communication in Anglo Saxon England




Litteratur:
¤
  • R.I. Page, On the Transliteration of English Runes
  • Bruce Dickens, Runic and heroic poems of the old Teutonic peoples, 1915.
  • Bracteates With Runes
  • Frisian Runic History.
  • Runic inscriptions in or from the Netherlands.
  • The runic and other monumental remains of the isle of Man.
  • Early Runic Inscriptions in England
  • Anthea Fraser Gupta, The Hackness Cross
  • A Runic Inscription from Baconsthorpe, Norfolk
  • George Stephens, On an Ancient Runic Casket Now Preserved in the Ducal Museum, Brunswick
  • Georg Georg Stephens, Handbook of The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, 1884
  • A Runic Rragment at Leek
  • R.I. Page, On the Transliteration of English Runes
  • The Collingham Runic Inscription
  • The Dover Brooch
  • Inscription and communication in Anglo Saxon England
  • Inscription and communication in Anglo Saxon England
  • Inscription and communication in Anglo Saxon England

  • Frisian runes revisited - T.Looijenga
  • The Corpus Of Frisian Runic Inscriptions
  • www.esswe.org.
  • www.scandinavian.wisc.edu.
  • www.englishfolkchurch.com.
  • wikipedia, Runediktene.
  • www.ufdc.ufl.edu.
  • en.wikipedia.org
  • en.wikipedia.org




    Direct links to the other pages:
    |.Index.| |.Norwegian.runes.| |.Swedish.runes.| |.Danish.runes.| |.Greenlandic.runes.| |.Germanic.runes.| |.Anglo-Saxon.runes.| |.Elder.Futhark.| |.Odin's.Galder.Songs.| |.Sigdrifumal.| |.Secret.runes.| |.History.of.the.runes.| |.Norwegian.runic.inscriptions.| |.Symbols.| |.Daily.life.| |.The.Thing.| |.Raids.| |.Stave.church.| |.Art.| |.Links.to.runes.| |.Download-links.|

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    Opdateret d. 12.2.2016